Breast cancer currently is the leading cause of deaths among female population. In the U.S., there are many approaches to its treatment which are based on surgery and radiation therapy. In prevention of the disease incidences and its progress, much interest has shifted to screening and possible identification of risk factors that cause the condition. Scientists adapted regular screening mechanisms for individuals with high risk of cancer development. If detected on the initial stage of its development, cancer can be easily treated (Smith et al., 2015). The research review done in part 1 and 2 of this course focuses on breast cancer screening and risk factors which are relevant for early detection. This paper investigates the study in part 1 and 2 in order to identify and analyze an existing gap relevant for nursing.
Scientists characterize cancer by unregulated cellular growth. Several factors including exposure to radiation and activation of oncogenes (cancer-causing genes) can cause that process. When researching on breast cancer, it is important to investigate transformations that occur in the body and lead to the development of the condition. This provides a gap for the research which might be relevant for the treatment of breast cancer. The question in this gap states: What are the biochemical and molecular changes that do occur during breast cancer development?
Reason for the Research Question
When treating breast cancer, it is advisable for women to have screening as a guideline for medical intervention. It can provide critical information for the detection of the disease during its early development and facilitate its treatment (Goldhirsch et al., 2013). Scientists study risk factors for breast cancer development and help individuals to find interventions and follow guidelines for care. Many researchers have associated the condition with age, concluding that women over the age of 40 are at greater risk of having cancer (DeSantis, Bryan, & Jemal, 2014). Others discuss the relationship between the age of the woman when she has her first pregnancy and possibility of having breast cancer (Hellquist, Czene, Hjälm, Nyström & Jonsson, 2015). These researches aim at determining the group of people who are prone to the condition. However, scientists did not pay close attention to the determination of molecular changes in women at risk of developing breast cancer. It is nurses` duty to provide education for those at risk as a way of health care. However, much of this information is not directed to the provision of alternative preventive and treatment strategies for breast cancer. This study aims at identifying specific changes in biochemical and genetic profiles of individuals who can develop cancer in comparison to those who do not develop the condition. However, once breast cancer is detected, the patient progresses to treatment. In such way, screening is aimed at early detection of breast cancer but not at the development of treatment and prevention strategies. This research aims at using this information to identify treatment with prevention. This is a gap in existing research.
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Clinical relevance of the Research
The awareness about changes in proteins, including hormones and enzymes, and genes can provide specific target points for the development of therapeutic agents. In a population of women at risk for breast cancer, some progress to the development of the condition while others do not. In the group that develops the disease, there are specific changes in the biochemical and molecular profiles of women with developing the disease. These particular modifications can be directly associated with certain body changes as well as with the condition progress. Scientists can use this information to investigate possibilities of an introduction of substances that can delay, minimize, prevent, or alter these changes. What is more, this step is of clinical importance since it improves breast cancer care.
People can use this research in different health care centers as a randomized control trial among women that are at risk of cancer development and have their planned screening programs. In order to study random tests, Specific health care centres will be selected for the study for random analysis. The patients will be informed of the research and enrol willingly. During the tests, blood will be used to provide a biochemical profile of the sample group while needle biopsy will provide a molecular profile through gene sequencing. This information will be maintained throughout the screening period of the sample group. It will be later categorized into two groups for analysis: those who developed breast cancer and those who did not. The researchers will compare molecular and biochemical profiles of these groups in order to identify any significant changes which they will be able to use to conduct further research aimed at the development of an intervention strategy (Independent UK Panel on Breast Cancer Screening, 2012).
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This research will use a mixed design to address the obtained changes. One can notice biochemical modifications through quantitative approaches, whereas molecular changes can be determined qualitatively especially by recognizing nucleotide changes. This prompts the use of both qualitative and quantitative designs for this research. Considering the time spent for this study, participants need to be involved in another continuous health care experiment that qualifies as the study. Therefore, women on regular screening for breast cancer will be invited to participate.
In conclusion, many types of research on breast cancer prevention are aimed at early detection of the condition and effective intervention. This is achieved through screening programs for patients at risk. However, scientists have not used molecular and biochemical screening to progress research aimed at developing alternative treatment and prevention of breast cancer. This provides a research gap of clinical importance for breast cancer care.
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