To begin with, the Ancient period of philosophy lasted from 7th century BC to 5th century AD and consisted of Pre-Socratic, Socratic, Hellenistic, and Roman periods. Moreover, Pre-Socratic period (7th – 5th Century B.C.) left only a few evidences of itself such as some texts and evidences of the following historians and philosophers. This period of philosophy ignores all the traditional viewpoints of mythological representation of the surrounding world and tries to find rational explanation for it. The philosophy investigates the roots and development of each phenomenon and tries to describe it mathematically. Furthermore, Socratic or Classical period (5th – 4th Century B.C.) absorbs the activity of Aristotle, Diogenes of Sinop, Plato, and Socrates. Socrates developed a system of critical thinking, which helped to decide how to live properly and what is right and wrong in life. Plato, Aristotle, and their followers ordered all of the existing problems of philosophy. Besides, Hellenistic or Post-Aristotelian (3rd Century B.C. – 3th Century A.D.) period consisted of activity of Pyrrho, Epicurus, Zeno of Citium , Philo of Alexandria, and Plotinus. This period develops the ideas of Socrates incorporating with them the thoughts of Greeks, Egyptians, Romans, Syrians, Indians, Persians, Neo-Platonism, Epicureanism, Skepticism, and Stoicism. Additionally, Roman period (1st Century B.C. – 5th Century A.D.) continued the traditions of Ancient Greece and ended with the downfall of Rome. It also absorbed the thoughts of Boethius, St. Augustine of Hippo, Marcus Aurelius, Epictetus, and Marcus Tullius Cicero. Neo-Platonism and Stoicism are the most powerful schools of philosophy of this period together with resurrection of Cynicism. The Medieval period (6th – 14th Century) of philosophy investigates the activity of Avicenna, St. Anselm, Abelard, Averroes, Maimonides, Albertus Magnus, Bacon, and Thomas Aquinas. However, the main task of this period of philosophy is to connect the existence of God with the concepts of classical philosophy because this period was significantly affected by Christianity. Besides, Boethius and St. Augustine represent the connection between Roman and Medieval traditions. During this period, there were created a lot of first professional universities with qualified scholars, while European Scholasticism, Jewish and Islamic (Illuminationism, Avicennism, and Averroism) philosophies were also developing. It must be said that Renaissance developed from 15th to 16th centuries and connected the concepts of modern philosophy of reason’s age and medieval philosophy. Desiderius Erasmus, Niccolo Machiavelli, Sir Thomas More, and Sir Francis Bacon are the major representatives of philosophy in this period. This period, which started in Italy, is called in regards to the revival or rebirth of classical traditions of thinking and learning. This period moves directly towards Humanism through various terms of medieval Scholasticism and Christianity with a permanent accent on personal and temporal considering the world as gates on the way to Christian afterlife. Moreover, Age of Reason (17th Century) is considered a basis of modern philosophy that researches the minds of Thomas Hobbes, Ren? Descartes, Baruch Spinoza, John Locke, Nicolas Malebranche, and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. British Empiricism and Rationalism, the major philosophical systems of this age, move away from medieval types of thinking such as Scholastics based on arguments of faith and theology. It is known as Early Modern period of philosophy because it develops philosophical liberalism, religious tolerance, and advancements in science. The age of Enlightenment (18th Century) absorbs the works of Bishop George Berkeley, Voltaire, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Adam Smith, Immanuel Kant, and Edmund Burke. This period is an intellectual movement of philosophy, which developed in Germany, Britain, and France; it considered reason, democracy, and freedom as the major values of the society saying that people should move towards progress increasing their level of knowledge. Finally, Modern period of philosophy (19th – 20th Century) encompasses the work of Bentham, Fichte, Hegel, Schelling, Schopenhauer, Comte, Emerson, Mill, Kierkegaard, Thoreau, Marx, Peirce, Nietzsche, Husserl, Moore, Sartre, and Derrida. As a result, there are developing a lot of flows of philosophy such as Deconstructionism, Post-Modernism, Post-Structuralism, Structuralism, Phenomenology, Logicism, Positivism, Analytic Philosophy, Pragmatism, Utilitarianism, and Transcendentalism.
Socrates (469- 399 BC) is one of the most eminent philosophers of Ancient Greece and the first Athens’s philosopher. The philosopher was born in Athens in the family of a midwife who, as he said, helped him to absorb her art as a philosophic method, and a stonemason, who taught Socrates how to become a sculpturer during his young years. Moreover, the philosopher claimed that he is a midwife of souls and minds of people. Furthermore, Anaxagoras from Clazomen, a teacher of Pericles, taught Socrates philosophy and was one of a plethora of great teachers who contributed to Socrates’ establishment as a great philosopher. Nevertheless, Socrates did not travel much and almost never left Athens. Only when he was a young man, he and philosopher Archelaus visited the island of Samos, Corinth, and Delphi. The Battle of Amifipole in 422 BC and the Battle of Potidaea in 432 BC were some of the greatest battles that Socrates participated in as a warrior. Furthermore, he was a very talented orator who considered all the people in his audience as his friends. He had a unique ability to influence thoughts and inspire souls of different people because of his charm which caused hostility and envy against him. Socrates believed that philosophy was his mission although people thought that he corrupted young generation and did not express sufficient respect to gods. After being accused, he poisoned himself having all of his students around because he did not want to go to prison. One of the most important of his studies was the understanding of self-ignorance. However, he said that people had to understand that the only thing they knew was that they knew nothing, which was the first step on the way to acquiring more knowledge. Conscience, morality, and the ability to think are the main components of a human’s soul, which defined a person. The main task of Socrates was to teach his students how to develop their souls and order the internal people’s worlds to make them happy.
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Diogenes (412 В- 323 BC) is an eminent philosopher of Ancient Greece born in Sinop in the Gicesius’ family, who was a powerful banker. The philosopher and his father were accused of manufacturing artificial money when he was young; as a result, he had to leave his city. The philosopher moved towards Delphi in order to find oracle Apollo to understand what his further steps had to be. The oracle advised him to reconsider his entire life and values, which he understood as an inspiration for manufacturing artificial money. Nevertheless, there is another version why Diogenes went to Delphi, which says that he looked for advices how to become eminent after he was blamed for forger. Antisthenes, the school of cynics’ founder, became the teacher of young Diogenes from whom he studied after the arrival to the capital because of the oracle’s advice. The philosopher is also considered to be the author of 7 Greek tragedies. Besides, the philosopher had uncommon behavior and manners, which significantly influenced the surrounding community. Moreover, Diogenes taught that the process of copying nature is one of the most important steps in the development of people’s souls. Additionally, he believed that a person should develop through the nature, which is the most important goal for the society and it can be reached through regular mental and physical exercises. He also stated that children and wives had to be common for all the men, that there are no stable authorities and governments, and that everyone is a citizen of the whole world. Besides, he said that natural and simple minds’ conditions, mentality, and moral abilities of primitive societies were the most ideal for the development. Additionally, he says that philosopher is a doctor which can treat people successfully, but is not interested in wealth and morality’s norms. The citizens of the city where he lived called him a dog because he was very rough with all of them, almost did not wear any cloths, and lived in a barrel.
Plato (423 BC В- 348 BC) founded the Academy of Athens, which was the first institution of higher education in Europe. He also was a student of Socrates, a philosopher of Ancient Greece, and mathematician. Plato and Aristotle, together with their teacher Socrates, founded philosophy and science in Ancient World because their main subjects of investigation were ethics, logics, mathematics, and philosophy. The philosopher was born in Athens in a family of aristocrats; he showed great results in his education in Athens and impressed all the people who surrounded him. The most impressive was his ability to quickly absorb any new knowledge and express his thoughts clearly and accurately. The thoughts and life of Socrates were investigated only based on permanent references and notes of Plato to Socrates’s name, which constantly appears in his works. However, Plato interpreted the style of mind of his teacher and created his own philosophy commenting and broadening them because he researched almost all the existing sciences in those times. The philosopher distinguished body (world of body) from soul, or imperfection of material world and permanent movement to the highest ideal of transcendent imperfection of materials. The main concept of his philosophy was the movement to perfect ideas from material world to perfect immaterial one. Moreover, he believed in reincarnation saying that the life of a person depends on the choices that he or she makes during life. There is a concept of an ideal country’s government in Plato’s philosophy, which says that the authority should be powerful and wise leader who represents wisdom and justice. Furthermore, the philosopher critiqued the political system of democracy of Athens saying that all the citizens will suffer from evils while philosophers are able to govern the people sincerely and adequately. Plato has not written any works but inspired people to ask and respond to important questions themselves, which led people directly to development and changing that highlights the fact that Plato was not a preacher, but an observer.
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Pythagoras (570В-495 BC) is a mathematician, philosopher, and a religious leader of Ancient Greece who was the first who defined himself as a lover of wisdom or philosopher. Moreover, his researches significantly influenced Plato who, in his turn, was the basis for the Western tradition of philosophy. One of the most important inputs of Pythagoras is his mathematical theorem about a right-angled triangle. Unfortunately, there are only a few facts about the life of the great philosopher. First, it is known that he was born at the island of Samos where he learnt Babylonian mathematical science under the supervision of Greece and Egyptian teachers. Additionally, he was interested in astronomy, geometry, poetry, and even played the lyre, and in 530 BC he became an important person of Croton situated in Italy. Temperance, simple lifestyle, being a vegetarian, and self-control were the basic concepts of the religion created by the philosopher after his absorption of various faiths. He also taught his students different mystical practices which represented silence, self-analysis, and meditation as their basic principles; at the end of the course, the students had to pass an exam of calmness. This philosopher also believed in reincarnation and the transmigration of souls between personalities and various animals; nevertheless, his research was based on consideration of mystical elements of souls and people. However, only those students chosen by the teacher were able to get secret knowledge, which was known only by teachers of esoteric religions. Rosicrucians and Freemasons were seemingly impacted by these mystical traditions and their secrets. Pythagorus created a powerful feeling of brotherhood and friendship amongst all the participants of his group using his talents of fellowship and charisma. Although his study was very popular amongst the citizens, there appeared an opposition of his study whichafter a few attacks made him and his student develop the study illegally. As a result, the philosopher told that it is important to live a simple life and be indulgent towards others. All these facts together with Pythagoras’ struggle with immoral lifestyle of Croton’s society contributed to permanent increase of the number of his envies.
Aristotle (384 В- 322 BC) is a philosopher, natural scientist, and polymath of Ancient Greece who researched the surrounding world. Moreover, his investigation has become the basis for further intellectual investigations of the Western world. The wide diversity of intellectual and scientific investigations enhanced the development of civilization of Western World. Besides, Alexander the Great and Plato were the most eminent people of Ancient World, who lived during the same time with Aristotle. Although he was a prominent polymath, he investigated and ordered the studies of Plato and Socrates, which became the basis of his philosophy. Furthermore, the philosopher had his own point of view, at the same time, being a good student. The schools of philosophy, which he established were very famous and unique. Moreover, he asked the most difficult questions and always tried to find the way how to solve all the unsolvable problems through his own style of mind. Botany, physics, philosophy, and logics were the main branches of study which were significantly influenced by his researches. Additionally, he was known as a lecturer, compassionate man, and an impressive debater of his times. It must be said that the Middle Ages and the European Renaissance were importantly impacted by his investigations, which were replaced by the theories of Isaac Newton. The philosopher was convinced that the power of mind, permanent study, and self-analysis would help the community to acquire greater quantities of knowledge, and would help to get rid of all the problems. Moreover, the main drawbacks of people were pride, anger, and jealousy, which cause the degradation of personality, while rational style of minds is the basis of goodness. Moreover, Alexander the Great was taught by this philosopher of different sciences such as political philosophy, history, and ethics. Equality and freedom were the major principles of his political model, which allowed people living more harmonious lives.
Sheikh Zayed is one of the greatest founders of the United Arabian Emirates, who contributed to the development of the country through the wise use of oil sources. Moreover, this person created a special committee known as Abu Dhabi Investment Authority, which was responsible for the left oil sources’ use. He was a soul of his nation, and one of his most favorite activities was communication with the citizens of the UAE. For example, most of media files and sources show that there were only a few official meetings with the President because he sincerely and simply communicated with the community. Moreover, he did not care of his outfits not wearing wealthy cloths, but was always ready to help all of his citizens, which makes his personality the most impressive for the society of the UAE, which will remember him forever. Furthermore, this leader worked on big humanitarian projects and was able to execute them only thanks to his patience. Additionally, his main goal was to unite separate lands of the occupied territories of the UAE although it was an administrational and financial burden for responsible people. Also, he thought that it is better to govern a single weak country than seven not strong countries; nevertheless, uniting the Emirates was a dangerous and a risky process. Therefore, there were severe life conditions, no universities with investigating centers, and no administration within the country, which would help the citizens to make right decisions. During 20 years of his administration, he became well-known as a simple leader who guided people by his own example. Besides, his main principles of governing were to personally communicate with people and personally control the processes of launching all the reforms. As a result, Sheikh Zayed founded an institution of making decision, which was based on opinion of various tribes. In its turn, this method of governing contributed to his frequent trips across the country in order to consult people from the furthest regions of the country and decide about their needs. Moreover, this authority created different organizations aimed at the development of various projects of improving desert’s environment. Additionally, the leader paid a great attention to building different social institutions such as universities, hospitals, and schools, and, finally gave a free access to them for the entire society of the UAE. Moreover, there were a lot of expressions of charity from his side such as orphans’ adaptation and building of a plethora of hospitals in Africa, Asia, and Europe. Furthermore, Sheikh Zayed did not use any elected legislature because he created his own system based on the country’s religion and search for alternatives. He was convinced that Allah created all the people completely free and said that they are allowed to have various opportunities to choose what to do. Moreover, he compared his country with a boat and its citizens with the crew as well as a captain of the boat where each of its members can express his or her own opinion. Additionally, he said that there is no person who can act like if he or she owes other people. He said that governing people have to communicate with their subjects expressing understanding and compassion because it is the duty put on them by Allah. It must be said that Quran, or Book of Allah, is the basis of the major concepts of Sheikh Zayed’s government and they are enshrined there. Moreover, he supported rights of women such as an access to free education and the ability to work, which highlights his liberal points of view in comparison with other leaders of GCC countries.
Positive Views on Philosophy in General
In my point of view, philosophy is one of the most important sciences in the modern society, which helps people from different parts of the world to determine the most important things in their lives. Moreover, philosophy unites people from various countries together through common points of view regarding general questions such as connection of soul and minds of a personality. It must be said that philosophy blurs all the broads between different countries and helps people with distinguished cultures and traditions to unite with common thoughts. Although there are different concepts of various philosophies which consider human soul, most of them claim that the most important for all the people is the harmonious development of both their internal and external worlds. For example, a plethora of classical philosophers say that all the people have to develop their minds through a wide range of mental exercises such as the search for the solutions of unsolvable problems. On the other hand, these schools of mind claim that all the people have to be developed physically doing various daily exercises from jogging to breathing exercises. Nevertheless, the major task of theses mental and physical exercises is to develop the soul of a personality which has to move towards a perfect ideal. In its turn, this concept of an open-minded human with a broad horizon of knowledge in various branches of study develops the personality from various angels. Additionally, these principles present a unique opportunity to create a personality that is well-developed physically and well-educated. Moreover, the created person is able to adequately estimate the opinions and thoughts of others, respect them at the same time being able to prove and defend one’s own opinion. Finally, the person who has a wide range of skills and knowledge in philosophy, which help him/her to be versatile, is a significant phenomenon in the modern world.
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