Marxism is a system of economic, social and political philosophy grounded on ideas that view social transformation regarding economic aspects. The core principle lies on the fact that the means of production is the economic base that determines political life. Marxism purposes at occupying a ground of equanimity between the rich and the poor by implementing the ideologies based on history thus aiming at a classless society as explained by Karl Marx. It is firmly believed that bourgeoisie (the middle class) exploits the workers thus building equality between the rich and the poor is very crucial.
Socialism is an economic system whereby all the means of production are owned by the public, shared ownership. It articulates that resources of the world should be owned in common by the entire global population. Its main aim is to ensure the co-operative system of control over the means of production. It targets eliminating hierarchy in the controlling of political matters.
Marxism and socialism are two different systems. Marxism was seen as being political in nature in its concepts whereas socialism is mainly economic in its nature (Novy-Marx 138). The main difference between the two stands on their practicability. While Marxism is more theoretical; socialism is more practical. Marxism focuses on how proletariat revolution can amend the social structure while socialism in the other hand focuses on an economy that is just to all. Despite the fact that Marxism and socialism are two different systems with diverse concepts and ideologies, both aims at creating fairness among all people globally thus creating a classless society where all the persons are equal with no one superior to another. Through their application in various countries has greatly enabled a conducive working condition between the privileged and the under privileged.
The world at large should consider moving away from Marxism system as it has been implicated as the leading cause of unemployment and political structural instability globally
Effects of Marxism Globally In The Past
Marxism had led to both positive and negative impacts worldwide. Political and philosophical influences have been experienced in different nations and states.
The impact of Marxism was first experienced in the continent of Europe. By the late 19th century, as a result, the influence of International, it had allowed the European trade union movement and the Major socialist parties that were dedicated to it in theory (Hill et al 44). However, there was a major division that arose between the socialist who strongly believed that violent revolution was unavoidable and the notably Eduard Bernstein who based is the argument on evolution as the main way of achieving socialism. The two groups quoted Marxism writings as their authority since there was a lot of inconsistency in his writings regarding these queries. Thus instead of creating unity and a classless society in was causing more divisions that could not lead to the achievements of the goals Marxism.
Marxism is reported to have had significant impacts in the Russia for quite a long time. According to Degroote, et al.( 912), the autocratic bureaucracy that increasingly imposed its will on the people by force existed with disregard for human life and liberty. This was during the period of Peter I (Peter the Great).The adoption of Western technology by the tsar/czars lead to acquisition of Western humanitarian ideas by a group of Russians, the Russian Revolution. In the process, Marxism ideas were embraced and circulated. Marxism in Russia had positive outcomes. It brought to an end the autocratic rule, lead to the establishment of a socialist / communist government, and there was the complete transformation of the Russian society and government that led to industrial growth and organization of the economy to a feasible five- year plans.
In China, adverse impacts of Marxism are notably outstanding. The Communist leaders such as Vladimir Lenin, Joseph Stalin, in their struggle to achieve a classless society, they prioritized their intentions in the process. This Chinese Communist regime led the establishment of massive, monolithic and largely ineffective state structures.
Marxism never caught on in Britain as it did on the Continent and to the extent it did recognizably different. Magnus, et al. 2012 states that unlike in other continents where liberals were arisen from radical wings of parties that were supported by the industrialists and petty capitalist, in Britain they comprised of nonconformist Christians and believes in peaceful ways of achieving political change. Central labor unions such as Fabian arose that resulted in positive change. Thus, Marxism Britain was played a big role in promoting equality among the individuals and different groups.
In third world countries, Marxism was given maximum support due to the legacy of colonialism. Many colonialists supported Marxism and this had a positive effect in the various colonies. Marxism had notable popular support in nations such as Ethiopia, Benin, Angola, Senegal and Kenya (Lapavitsas, 41). Its positive take has resulted in remarkable changes in these African societies and governments at large. It has promoted tremendous growth both in the economic and industrial sectors that rise in the economy. Due to the vast resources that the continent holds, economy has been an area of focus in many countries which has been the base of strong political regimes in various nations. This has seen many African countries develop over the years and compete with some of the big countries in Asia and Europe. Thus, due to Marxism, positive effects have been experienced in these African countries.
Effects of Marxism Worldwide in the Present
In the 21st century, humans stand at the crossroads concerning the ideas of Marxism. The achievements of the various sector such as science, technique, and industry creates hope in the way forward to future prosperity, social well- being and unlimited cultural advancements .On the other hand, the ravishing mass employments that has reappeared in almost all advanced countries of capitalism, poverty, ignorance wars and epidemics threatens the human existence.
Mass unemployment is one of the menacing symptoms experienced in states with capitalism which is part of Marxism. This has brought about negative impacts on the economy in many countries and has proved to be very hard to tackle. The unemployment in the capitalist countries on the rise if doubling other non-capitalist countries which is about 10% (Magnus, et al. 64).For example, unemployment in the European Union has escalated over the past two decades from2.4% to 12% in the present (Magnus, et al. 64). The Graph below shows the present percentage rates of unemployment in different countries.
Use of Machine in Working Day
The Marxism had great promises with the introduction of science and technology in the workplaces thus reducing the burden of workload and working hours. This could provide more time for leisure activities. But this seems not to be the outcome. According to Marx, (32), Machinery has replaced most personnel and the few who remains are subjected to increasing pressure to work longer hours with lower wages and poor working condition. As the population increases in many countries, the numbers of people that are qualified for various jobs in the industries are very many. This has seen a dense population without employment with the introduction of technology whose main purpose is increasing productivity. The use of industrial robots has had significant implications in different countries. For example, in the United States of America, the number of robots has grown by 50% according to current data, figures published by mckinsey Global Institute. Italy and Spain also records an increasing number of uses of industrial robots. Thus the number of workers significantly reduced and the remaining working experiencing heavy workloads. However, this has led to increases productions and profits.
Marxism, a system aimed at achieving a classless society has both positive and negative implication worldwide. The outcome in the various nations was different depending on the approach used by the liberalist and communist. In main nations notably Britain; the results were recommendable. It promoted economic growth with a society of equality compared to other nations. More so, in one way or another it brought peace and unity to the citizens and due to that stability the country was as well able to move forward. In other nation’s this brought in revolutions such as in Russia that brought good advancements. However, in some other countries, the outcome was detrimental such as in China where there was erection of inefficient political structures and economic decline. In the present world, it has escalated the unemployment rates and the same time increased the workload and working hours but the profits.